If you are omitting a section of a quote, indicate this by using ellipses, otherwise known as "three little dots. If it is particular words or phrases that "prove" your point, you do not need to quote the sentences they appear in; rather, incorporate the words and phrases into sentences expressing your own ideas.
You will often want merely to refer or point to passages as in the third sentence in the sample paragraph that contribute to your argument.
Proper formatting of quotes, attributions and citations differs slightly depending on whether you are using Modern Language Association or American Psychological Association style, but general principles apply to both.
If your ellipses comes at the end of a sentence, end the sentence with a period first. Quoting is only one of several ways to present textual material as evidence. You can include all of this information within parentheses Smith,p. The documentation style used in this pages is that presented in the MLA Handbook, but other style systems are commonly used.
If you need to add a couple of words within a quote to clarify something, put your own words in brackets. He advises her to "mend [her] speech a little. Do not use two quotations in a row, without intervening material of your own.
Quote selectively Similarly, after you have decided that you do want to use material in quoted form, quote only the portions of the text specifically relevant to your point. You will often need to use a past tense to refer to events that took place before the moment you are presently discussing: In this case just include the page number in parentheses after the quotation or reference to the text.
Begin the quote on a new line, indent the entire quote one inch farther than the body of your text and do not use quotation marks. What to include in literary analysis Take a look at this sample paragraph. Pay attention to verb tense Tense is a tricky issue. To be sure, though, you should ask your course instructor.
Check with your instructor to determine the precise style desired. Smith observed that "the penguins seemed confused by the nuclear explosion" p. If the quoted material that follows begins in the middle of a sentence and was not capitalized in the original, use a capital in brackets to indicate the change while making the sentence correct.
In citing the Bible, identify the version in your first mention, followed by book, chapter and verse. Putting the right expert observation in the right place can make an essay shine. Think of the text in terms of units--words, phrases, sentences, and groups of sentences paragraphs, stanzas --and use only the units you need.
Quotations that are longer than four lines of prose or three lines of poetry are formatted as "block" quotes. Maintaining Clarity and Readability Introduce your quotations Introduce a quotation either by indicating what it is intended to show or by naming its source, or both.
Format Your Quote Begin and end short quotations with double quotation marks.
You can also refer to textual data, summarize, and paraphrase. It includes 3 basic kinds of materials: Only the exact words of your source and the punctuation of the quote itself should be inside the quotation marks.
Use a colon at the end of the phrase that leads to the quote. They are shorthand that allows the reader to locate more information about your source on your works cited page. Do not leave a space between the quotation marks and the text. In other cases you will want to paraphrase, i.
Parenthetical citations belong outside the last set of quotation marks, before the punctuation that ends the sentence for a short quote and following it for a block quote. Summarize or paraphrase when it is not so much the language of the text that justifies your position, but the substance or content.
Separate lines of poetry with a space, a forward slash and another space.
But events in a narrative or drama take place in a time sequence. Keep in mind that when you are writing a paper about the same text and quoting from the same edition that everyone else in the class is, instructors will often allow you to use informal documentation.HOW TO USE QUOTES IN A RESEARCH PAPER (See section on rules for parenthetical references in this book.) Identifying Sources in the Body of Your Paper The first time you cite a source, it is almost always a good idea to mention its author(s), How to Use Quotes in an Essay.
Use block quotations sparingly. There may be times when you need to quote long passages. However, you should use block quotations only when you fear that omitting any words will destroy the integrity of the passage.
If that passage exceeds four lines (some sources say five), then set it. Should the quotation speak for the essay or should the essay speak for the quotation? Quotations should add impact to the essay and not steal the show.
If your quotation has more punch than your essay, then something is seriously wrong. Your essay should be able to stand on its own legs; the quotation should merely make this stand stronger.
Properly placed quotes add power and detail to your essay writing. Putting the right expert observation in the right place can make an essay shine. Prose or verse quotations less than four lines long are not indented.
For quotations of this length, use the patterns described above. Indent "longer" quotations in a block about ten spaces in from the left margin; when a quotation is indented, quotation marks are not used.Download